Classics in the History of Psychology
Special Collections

An internet resource developed by
Christopher D. Green
York University, Toronto, Ontario
ISSN 1492-3713

(Return to Classics index)

The Origins of and Debate Between
Structuralism and Functionalism

Edited by Christopher D. Green,
York University

General Introduction


About the Editor

Section I. Precursors & Early Debates

Introduction to Section I

Wright, Chauncey. (1870). Limits of natural selection. North American Review (October).

Wright, Chauncey. (1873). Evolution of self-consciousness. North American Review (April).

ˇ        Madden, E. H.(1963). The metaphysics of self-consciousness. Chapter 7 of Chauncey Wright and the foundations of pragmatism (pp. 128-142). Reprinted by permission of University of Washington Press.

James, William. (1884).What is an emotion? Mind, 9, 188-205.

James, William. (1890). The scope of psychology. Chapter 1 of Principles of psychology.

James, William. (1890). The functions of the brain. Chapter 2 of Principles of psychology.

Dewey, John. (1894). The theory of emotion I: Emotional attitudes. Psychological Review, 1, 553-569. (George's Page).

Dewey, John. (1895). The theory of emotion II: The significance of emotions. Psychological Review 2, 13-32. (George's Page).

Titchener, Edward B. (1895a). Simple reactions. Mind, 4, 74-81.

Baldwin, James Mark. (1895). Types of reaction. Psychological Review, 2, 259-273.

Titchener, Edward B. (1895b). The type-theory of simple reaction. Mind, 4, 506-514.

Baldwin, James Mark. (1896). The 'type-theory' of reaction. Mind, 5, 81-90

Titchener, Edward B. (1896). The 'type-theory' of simple reaction. Mind, 5, 236-241.

Angell, James Rowland & Moore, Addison W. (1896). Studies from the psychological laboratory of the University of Chicago: 1. Reaction-Time: A study in attention and habit. Psychological Review, 3, 245-258. (George's Page.)

Dewey, John. (1896) The reflex arc concept in psychology. Psychological Review, 3, 357-370.

Baldwin, James Mark. (1896). A new factor in evolution. American Naturalist, 30, 441-451, 536-553. (George's Page).

Baldwin, James Mark. (1896). Consciousness and evolution. Psychological Review, 3, 300-309. (George's Page).

Section II. The Founding of Structuralist & Functionalist "Schools"

Introduction to Section II

Titchener, Edward B. (1898a). The postulates of a structural psychology. Philosophical Review, 7, 449-465.

Caldwell, W. (1899). The postulates of a structural psychology. Psychological Review, 6, 187-194.

Titchener, Edward B. (1899). Structural and functional psychology. Philosophical Review, 8, 290-299.

Angell, James R. (1903). The relation of structural and functional psychology to philosophy. Decennial publications of the University of Chicago (First Series, Vol. 3, pp. 55-73). [Reprinted 1903 in Philosophical Review, 12, 243-271.) (George's Page)

James, William, (1904). The Chicago school. Psychological Bulletin, 1, 1-5.

Angell, James R. (1906). Psychology: An introductory study of the structure and function of human conscious, (3rd edition). New York: Henry Holt. (George's Page).

Angell, James Rowland. (1907). The province of functional psychology. Psychological Review, 14, 61-91.

Section III. Dénouement and the Rise of Behaviorism

Introduction to Section III

Calkins, Mary Whiton. (1906). A reconciliation between structural and functional psychology. Psychological Review, 8, 61-81.

Dewey, John. (1910). The influence of Darwin on philosophy and other essays. New York: Henry Holt. (George's Page)

Dunlap, Knight. (1912). The case against introspection. Psychological Review, 19, 404-413.

Titchener, Edward B. (1912). The schema of introspection. American Journal of Psychology, 23, 485-508.

Watson, John B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177.

Titchener, Edward B. (1914). On "Psychology as the behaviorist views it". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 53, 1-17.

Washburn, Margaret Floy. (1922). Introspection as an objective method. Psychological Review, 29, 89-112.

Other Readings

Backe, A. (2001). John Dewey and early Chicago functionalism. History of Psychology, 4, 323-340.