Classics in the History of Psychology

An internet resource developed by
Christopher D. Green
York University, Toronto, Ontario

(Return to Classics index)

History of Psychology: A Sketch and an Interpretation

James Mark Baldwin (1913)
Originally published London: Watts.

Posted December 1999 - March 2000

Volume I


Part I.
Preliminary Matters

Chapter I. Introduction: Racial and Individual Thought

Chapter II. Primitive Thought. Psychosophy

Part II
Early Unscientific Interpretations of Mind

Chapter III. The Origin and Development of Dualism. Greek Speculation, First Period: Projectivism
The Pre-Socratic Schools

Chapter IV. Greek Speculation, Second Period: Subjectivism
Socrates, Plato, and the Minor Socratic Schools

Chapter V. Greek Speculation, Third Period: Objectivism
Aristotle, Post-Aristotelian Schools, Stoics, Epicureans.
The Greek Mystics: Neo-Platonism; Philo; Plotinus

Part III
The Ripening of Dualism

Chapter VI. The Patristics, Scholastics, and Arabians. The Anti-Logical Reaction: Mysticism
Christian and Patristic Psychology: Church Fathers, St. Augustine.
The Scholastics: John of Salisbury, Thomas Aquinas, Albertus, Duns Scotus.
Arabian Physiological Psychology: Avicenna, Alhacen Averroes
The Mystic Reaction: The German Mystics: Eckhart, Tauler

Part IV.
Modern Psychology--I. First Period, To the Nineteenth Century

Chapter VII. The Interpretation of Dualism
The Modern Schools. The New Departures: The Empirical Method, F. Bacon
The Renewal of Mysticism: The Italians, Jacob Boehme. The Individual Analogy

Chapter VIII. Philosophical Psychology: Dualism, Rationalism, Dogmatism, Empiricism
Dualism: Descartes. Occasionalism: Malebranche Parallelism:Spinoza
Pre-establish Harmony: Leibniz. Dogmatism: Wollf
Beginnings of Naturalism and Early Empiricism: Gassendi, Hobbes.

Volume II.

Part IV (continued).
Modern Psychology--I. First Period, To the Nineteenth Century

Chapter I. Early Empiricism, Naturalism, Eighteenth-Century Materialism
Locke, Hume, Condillac, Hartley, Priestley, Holbach, the French Encyclopædists.

Chapter II. Subjective and Critical Idealism; the New Mysticism--Faith Philosophy
Idealism: Berkeley, Kant. Reaction to the Faith Philosophy: Jacobi.

Part V.
Modern Psychology--II. Second Period, the Nineteenth Century

Chapter III. Preliminary Survey. Philosophical Psychology Since Kant
German Idealism: Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, Schleiermacher, Schopenhauer.
Spiritualism in England. The British Moral Philosophers and Associationists. Shaftesbury, the Mills, Hamilton.
Scottish Realism: Reid, Brown, Stewart. French Spiritualism: Laromiguiere, Maine de Biran, Jouffroy. Eclecticism: Cousin.

Chapter IV. Scientific Psychology in the Nineteenth Century and Beyond. I. General Points of View
The Positive Method: Rousseau, Comte. Psychophysical Parallelism. Herbart, Lotze.

Chapter V. Scientific Psychology in the Nineteenth Century and Beyond. II. Special Lines of Work
Physiological and Experimental Psychology. Psychophysics. Mental Chronometry.
Genetic Psychology: Lamarck, Darwin, Wallace, Spencer.
Animal and Comparative Psychology: Instinct, Imitation, Play.
Accommodation and Learning: Reflex and Causal Theories, Spencer-Bain Theory. Law of Trial and Error. Child Study.

Chapter VI. Scientific Psychology in the Nineteenth Century and Beyond. III. Special Lines of Work (concluded)
Social Psychology. Affective Psychology. Innervation and Kinaesthetic Theories: Bastian.
Peripheral Theory of Emotion and Expression: James. Affective Revival and Affective Logic: Ribot.
Animism and Ejective Processes. Æsthetic Psychology: Lipps. The Attention.

Part VI.
Genetic Interpretation of History

Chapter VII. The Development of Individual Thought
Rise and Development of Dualism in the Individual. The logical Interpretation of Dualism.
The new Dualism of Reflection. The Development of imaginative Interpretation.

Chapter VIII. Historical Resume. Results of the Comparison of Individual with Racial Thought
The Primitive Period: Projective (Pre-Socratics).
The Dualistic Period: Subjective (Socrates), Ejective (Plato), Objective (Aristotle).
Transition to Reflective Interpretation (Patristics, Scholastics, Mystics). Reflective (Modern). Conclusion.

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