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Amalric, Amauric, or Amauri, of Bena.
Lived in the 12th and 13th centuries. A scholastic philosopher who attempted
to reconcile theology with Averroës' materialistic interpretation
of the metaphysics of Aristotle. He was forced to recant, but founded a
pantheistic and mystical sect who rejected the Church and its sacraments.
Amaurosis [Gr. a + mairein, to shine]: Ger. Amaurose; Fr. amaurose; Ital. amaurosi. A somewhat vague term for a form of total loss of vision, in which the eyes, when examined by the ophthalmoscope and otherwise, show no ostensible lesion or defect.
Gutta serena was an older term for this disorder. A condition of similar nature,
in which the loss of vision is not total, is termed AMBLYOPIA (q.v.). In typical
cases the defect is due to some abnormality of function of the central nervous
system. See VISION (defects of). (J.J.)
Ambidextrous [Lat. ambi, both, + dexter, right hand]: Ger. Ambidextrie; Fr. ambidextre; Ital. ambidestro. Possessing equal or nearly equal facility and skill in the use of either hand. It is differentiated from the normal superiority of the right hand (right-handedness) and the exceptional superiority of the left-hand (left-handedness). It is opposed to DEXTRALITY (q.v.).
Literature: references under DEXTRALITY; also LOMBROSO, Antropologia
Ambiguity [Lat. ambo + agere,
to act]: Ger. Zweideut gkeit; Fr. ambiguïté; Ital.
ambiguità. A source of verbal fallacy, depending on the fact that
the same word or words may have come historically to bear more than one sense,
or may have a meaning that varies with the context. See FALLACY. (R.A.)
Amblyopia [Gr. amblnV,
dull, + wy, eye, sight]: Ger. Schwachsichtigkeit,
Amblyopie; Fr. amblyopie; Ital. ambliopia. A partial enfeeblement
or obscurity of vision, in which no lesion or defect of the organs of vision
can be recognized by the ophthalmoscope or otherwise. It is apt to be connected
with an abnormality of function of the central nervous system. See also AMAUROSIS,
and VISION (defects of). (J.J.)
Ambrosius, Sanctus (or Saint Ambrose).
(cir. 340-97.) The son of a Roman noble in Gaul, he became governor of
Liguria and later archbishop of Milan. He served with 'unequalled ability,
zeal, and disinterestedness' from 374 until his death. His great influence
humbled King Theodosius into performing public penance.
Amelius (or Amerius). Lived in the
last half of the 3rd century A.D. The disciple of Plotinus, he became an
Eclectic. His own writings are lost.
Ametropia [Gr. a + metron, measure, + wy, eye]: Ger. Ametropie, Refraktionsstörung; Fr. amétropie; Ital. ametropia. A general term for a refractive error or abnormality in the eye; the opposite of EMMETROPIA, or normal refraction. MYOPIA, ASTIGMATISM (q.v.), &c., are special forms of Ametropia. See VISION (defects of). (J.J.)
Literature: DONDERS, Refractum, edited by Oliver (1899); NORRIS
and OLIVER, Diseases of the Eye, iv. 401-81.
Amimia [Gr. a + mimoV, a mimic]: Ger. Amimie; Fr. amimie; Ital. amimia. An aphasic symptom involving the loss of the power to use gestures and other pantomimic means of expression of thought.
Certain aphasic patients, when unable to express themselves by spoken words, can still communicate to some extent by descriptive, imitative, or conventional signs and gestures; can nod the head for 'yes,' shake it for 'no'; express numbers with the fingers, and the like. Amimia involves the loss of this power.
If the gestures are inappropriately or incorrectly used there is paramimia. The defect is of cortical origin, and represents the motor aspect of the function which, when sensorily disordered, produces ASEMIA (q.v.). A defect of similar nature involving a subcortical centre presents an inability to correctly imitate or repeat gestures and the like. Such a defect may also be regarded as a form of amimia, but is not usually included in the use of the word as applied to aphasic disorders. See SPEECH AND ITS DEFECTS; also MIMETISM, and the classification given under RESEMBLANCE.
Literature: SÉGLAS, Troubles du Language; BALDWIN, Ment. Devel.
in the Child and the Race, chap. xiii. § 4; KUSSMAUL, Störungen der
Sprache; MORSELLI, Semej. malat. ment., ii. Also literature cited under AGRAPHIA,
and SPEECH AND ITS DEFECTS. (J.J.)
Amitosis [Gr. a + mitoV]: Ger. Amitose; Fr. amitose; Ital. amitosi. Direct nuclear division in the cell without those complex changes known as karyokinesis or mitosis. First applied by Flemming (1882). (C.LL.M.)
The nucleus remains in the resting stage, without the formation of chromosomes, and simply divides into two similar daughter-nuclei. This process of direct nuclear division, discovered by Remak (1855), was at first considered to be the normal method of division; but it has since been found to be relatively rare, occurring chiefly in degenerate, and in very highly specialized cells, or in pathological growths. (E.S.G.)
Literature: FLEMMING, Zellsubstanz; WILSON, The Cell in Devel. and Inheritance
Amixia [Gr. a + mixiV, a mixing]; Ger. Amixie; Fr. amixie; Ital. amissia. A term denoting the absence of free intercrossing. Cf. PANMIXIA.
The term was proposed by Weismann (Ueber den Einfluss der Isolirung auf die Artbildung, 1872) for the prevention of interbreeding between groups, by geographical isolation. Delboeuf has advanced mathematical considerations to show that any such separation of groups must result in divergence of characters; and Romanes makes much use of the principle of his theory of ISOLATION (q.v.).
Literature: WEISMANN (as cited); ROMANES, Darwin and after Darwin, Pt.
III (with quotation on p. 13, from DELBOEUF). (C.LL.M.
Ammonius Saccas. Died about 241 A.D. A
Greek philosopher, born in Alexandria, who founded Neo-Platonism. He taught
Plotinus, Origen, and Longinus. Born of Christian parents, he preferred
heathenism. See ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL.
Amnesia [Gr. a + mimnhskein,
to remind, remember]: Ger. Amnesie; Fr. amnésie; Ital.
amnesia. Loss or impairment of memory. See MEMORY (defects of). (J.J.)
Amoeba [Gr. amoibh]: Ger. Amoebe; Fr. amibe; Ital. ameba. A genus of unicellular organisms characterized by indefinite movements and changes of form.
Von Rosenhof described the Proteus animalcule in 1755. Ecker drew attention to the contractility involved, and compared it with that of muscle. Later observers gradually recognized in the amoeba the beginnings of all the essential physiological processes, such as contractility, irritability, assimilation, metabolism, respiration, and reproduction. The term amoeboid is applied to movements (e.g. in white blood-corpuscles) like those of the amoeba.
The common species, Amoeba proteus, consists of a little mass of naked semi-fluid protoplasm containing a nucleus, but with no further permanent differentiation of the cell substance. The amoeba alters its shape and moves by means of pseudopodia, processes formed by the outflowing of the protoplasm at any point, and capable of being withdrawn again into the body. Nutrition takes place by the ingestion into the substance of the amoeba of food particles, which undergo digestion within food-vacuoles. A pulsating contractile vacuole periodically becomes filled with liquid and emptied to the exterior, acting perhaps as an excretory organ. The amoeba is known to reproduce by simple binary fission of the body, with accompanying division of the nucleus. Amoebae live an active life in stagnant water. Under certain conditions they secrete a closed protective cyst. Cf. PROTOZOA, and UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS. (E.S.G.)
Literature: MARSHALL and HURST, Pract. Zool.; M. FOSTER, Textbook of
Physiol., Introd.; T.J. PARKER, Elementary Biol., art. Protozoa, Encyc. Brit.
(9th ed.). (C.LL.M. - E.S.G.)
Amortization [Lat. amortisatio]: Ger. Amortisation; Fr. amortissement; Ital. amortizzamento. The practice of setting aside a fixed sum out of current income for the sake of extinguishing a debt (or other form of liability within a determinate period. The sums thus set aside, with the interest accruing upon them, constitute what is known as a sinking fund.
Amortization seems to have been first applied to the public debt of England
early in the 18th century, and to have been introduced into French public finance
almost immediately afterward. The amortization of industrial enterprises began
with the English 'turnpike trusts'; but it has been far more extensively applied
in France and Germany than in England or America. The term originally signified
alienation in mortmain; but the meaning here given has gradually superseded
the older one. (A.T.H.)
Ampère: see UNITS (electrical).
Amphibology or Amphibolia [Gr. amfibolia]:
Ger. Amphibolie; Fr. amphibologie; Ital. anfibologia. A
verbal fallacy, arising from the double interpretation of any proposition, rendered
possible by some want of clearness or definiteness in the grammatical construction
of the statement. See Aristotle, Soph. Elenchi, chap. iv. (R.A.)
Amphigony: see GAMOGENESIS.
Amphimixis: : Ger. Amphimixie; Fr. amphimixie; Ital. anfimissi. The mingling of the substance IDIOPLASM (q.v.) from two individuals so as to effect a mingling of hereditary characteristics. See SEXUAL REPRODUCTION.
The term is due to Weismann, and includes the phenomena of conjugation and fertilization amongst unicellular and multicellular organisms. Weismann also makes amphimixis the main source of congenital VARIATIONS (q.v.).
Literature; A. WEISMANN, Essays on Heredity, ii. No. XII (1891); Germ-Plasm
(1893); F. Galton, A Theory of Heredity, J. Anthropol. Instit., v. 5 (1875),
and Contemp. Rev. (1875); v. BENEDEN, Recherches sur la maturation de l'oeuf,
Arch. de Biol., iv. (1883). (C.LL.M., E.S.G.)
Ampliative: Ger. Erweiterungs- (urteil);
Fr. ampliatif; Ital. ampliativo. Ampliative Judgment is one in
which the predicate adds something not already contained in the notion of the
subject. It is contrasted with explicative or ANALYTIC JUDGMENT (q.v.). (R.A.)
Amulet [Lat. amuletum]: Ger. Amulet; Fr. amulette; Ital. amuleto. A charm to ward off evils. Gems and other stones, pieces of metal, both usually engraved or stamped with some design; pieces of parchment bearing sacred writing like the Jewish phylacteries -- all are common forms of the amulet. Although the word is first used by Pliny, there can be no doubt that the custom of wearing amulets is a very ancient one.
When spirits, heavenly bodies, and occult powers were believed to work evil
upon man, these charms were used to ward off or minimize the effects. Witchcraft
was a potent cause of their employment, and still is, in Africa for example.
Superstition so dominates the human mind that amulets were by no means uncommon
even amongst adherents of the more spiritual religions, such as Judaism and
Christianity. Early Christians wore the fish-symbol; and we find Chrysostom
and Augustine protesting against similar usages. While common still amongst
Eastern peoples and half-civilized tribes, and even amongst the superstitiously
inclined of civilized peoples, amulets were condemned by the Christian Church
as early as the Council of Trullo (692 A.D.) (R.M.W.)
Amusia [Gr. a + monsa, a muse]: Ger. Amusie; Fr. amusie; Ital. amusia. The loss of the power to understand or to execute music; a defect in regard to music, analogous to aphasia in regard to speech. It presents types and varieties analogous to the types of speech disorders.
The defect may be motor, as in a loss of the power to execute music by singing or by performing upon an instrument (motor aphasia); or the loss of ability to comprehend and appreciate music (sensory amusia); or there may be a perverted musical sense (paramusia). Loss of musical memories constitutes amnesic amusia.
In almost all cases, amusia involves some degree of aphasia, but cases of sensory and amnesic amusia (musical recognition) occur without aphasia. This fact, and the frequency with which the musical powers are retained in cases of aphasia, tend to establish the existence of a separate musical centre, situated usually in the left hemisphere, with close anatomical and functional connections with the centre of speech. Corresponding to word-deafness would be tone-deafness; and to word-blindness would be note-blindness. A subnormal capacity for the appreciation of music is very common in normal individuals in complete health and in the absence of any nervous defect; such persons lack 'a musical ear,' and in extreme cases approximate to a condition of amusia. (J.J. - J.M.B.)
Literature: ELDER, Aphasia, chap. x; BASTIAN, Aphasia, 289-98; BRAZIER,
Rev. Philos. (Oct. 1892); WALLASCHECK, Zeitsch. f. Psychol., xii. I; MORSELLI,
Semej. malat. ment., iv; BALDWIN, Ment. Devel. in the Child and the Race, chap.
xiv. § 2 (with bibliography); EDGREN, Brit. Med. J. (1894), ii. 1441; IRELAND,
J. of Ment. Sci., xl. 354. Also citations under SPEECH AND ITS DEFECTS. (J.J.)
An sich (Hegel): see HEGELIAN TERMINOLOGY,
An und für sich [Ger.]. 'In and for itself';
first used, it is said, by Baumgarten. See the glossaries under KANTIAN TERMINOLOGY
(ding an sich) and HEGEL'S TERMINOLOGY. (J.M.B.)
Anabaptists [Gr. ana, again, + baptizein, to baptize]: Ger. Anabaptisten, Wiedertäufer; Fr. Anabaptistes; Ital. Anabattisti. The name of the most extreme sect of the Reformation period. Setting out from the rejection of the sacrament of infant baptism, on the ground that personal profession, with baptism as the seal, alone suffices to salvation, they eventually aimed at a complete overthrow of the existing social order, and the establishment of a Christian theocracy on the basis of community of goods and of absolute personal equality.
The principal names connected with the movement, which originated in Germany
and had its most considerable influence there, are Thomas Münzer, Lutheran
pastor of Zwickau, in Saxony (1521); Nikolaus Storch, the 'prophet' of Wittenberg;
Rothmann, of Münster, in Westphalia; and, above all, 'John of Leydon' (Johann
Bockhold), who ruled Münster for a year (1534-5), and, along with his followers,
gave himself over to unbridled licence. He was put to death in 1536. The movement
was closely connected with the 'Peasants' War' in Thuringia (1525). After the
Bockhold rising had been suppressed with terrible severity, the sect disappeared;
but some of its teachings were soberly continued by Menno Simmons, the founder
of the sect known as Mennonites. (R.M.W.)
Anabolism [Gr. anabolh, a throwing up]: Ger. Anabolismus; Fr. anabolisme; Ital. anabolismo. The constructive or synthetic metabolism whereby more complex chemical substances are elaborated in the cell; associated with a storage of energy, which is liberated by the opposite process of katabolic METABOLISM (q.v.).
This term, which was suggested by Michael Foster and used by Gaskell in 1886, has served to bring out clearly the distinction between the constructive and disintegrating changes which occur in the cell. Geddes and Thomson have elaborated the thesis that that ovum is predominantly anabolic, the spermatozoon katabolic, thus giving these processes a rôle in evolution; and have extended this both to the female and male organisms -- the former being supposed to have a predominantly anabolic, the latter a katabolic diathesis -- and to species.
Literature: W. H. GASKELL, On the Structure, Distribution, and Function
of Visceral Nerves, J. of Physiol., vii. (1886), 47; M. FOSTER, art. Physiology,
in Encyc. Brit. (9th ed.), xix; GEDDES and THOMSON, Evolution of Sex (1889).
Anaemia or Anemia [Gr. a + aima, blood] Ger. Anämie, Blutarmuth; Fr. anémie; Ital. anemia. Bloodlessness, deficiency of blood: acute, when due to haemorrhage; chronic, when caused by a pathological condition of the blood. See VASO-MOTOR SYSTEM.
Literature: Richet's Dict. de Physiol., art. Anémie. (C.F.H.)
Anaesthesia [Gr. a + aisqhsiV, feeling]: Ger. Unempfindlichkeit, Anästhesie; Fr. anesthésie; Ital. anestesia. A loss or impairment of sensibility; a condition characterized by such loss.
Anaesthesia may be the result of a lesion in the nerve centres, or in the nerves supplying a given part, or of a functional interference with any portion of the mechanism for receiving sense impressions (as by the action of drugs or anaesthetics). Anaesthesia usually involves loss of tactile sensibility, of pain (analgesia), and of temperature sensations, but in exceptional cases any one of these may be lost and the others remain unimpaired. Several varieties of anaesthesia are distinguished; according to its origin, it is central or peripheral; to its extent, general or local; to its degree, complete or incomplete; it may be unilateral (hemi-anaesthesia) when due to lesion of the spinal cord on the opposite side; it may be associated with severe pain in the part affected (anaesthesia dolorosa). Muscular anaesthesia indicates a loss of the muscle sense without loss of other sensations; one form of it appears as an awkwardness in movement, and an inability to perform certain movements unless guided and controlled by the eyes (see ATAXIA). Optical, auditory, gustatory, olfactory, thermal, and tactile anaesthesia (known as anaphia or apselaphesia) are sometimes used in reference to a loss of the special sense denoted. Psychic anaesthesia is a term (used by German writers) to denote a condition of impassiveness or apathy -- a dullness or lack of response to the usual motives, feelings, and impressions of life. It occurs in conditions of extreme preoccupation, ecstasy, grief, melancholia, and the like. See also ANAESTHETICS. (J.J.)
Literature: RICHET, Recherches sur la Sensibilité; JANET, Les
Stigmates Mentaux des Hystériques (1893); MOEBIUS, Diagnostik d. Nervenkrankheiten,
185 ff. Also extended bibliography in Richet's Dict. de Physiol., art. Anesthésie,
and references under PLEASURE AND PAIN. (J.M.B.)
Anaesthetics: Ger. Betäubungsmittel; Fr. anesthésiques; Ital. anestetici. Substances producing diminished sensibility in general, and especially to pain (ANALGESIA, q.v.).
Anaesthetics are administered by inhalation, injection, or local application. They differ considerably in their mode of action as well as in the accompanying physiological and psychic symptoms which they induce. Of prime importance is the distinction between general anaesthetics, which procude a general condition of insensibility with loss or profound modification of consciousness (ether, chloroform, nitrous oxide gas, &c.), and local anaesthetics, which are applied to, and affect directly, the part to be anaesthetized (ether spray, cocaine, &c.). (J.J.)
Chloroform was discovered and first used as an anaesthetic for an operation by Sir J. Simpson, in Edinburgh, 1847. Sulphuric ether was used for operation in Boston in 1846. Cf. Simpson, J. Med. Soc., viii. 415, and Works (1871), ii. 23. The term anaesthetic was proposed by Oliver Wendell Holmes (J.M.B.)
Literature: for the history, methods of use, and specific effects of
anaesthetics, consult article by J. T. CLOVER and G. H. BAILEY, in Quain's Dict.
of Med.; Nineteenth Cent. Pract. of Med. (sub verbo); BUXTON, Anaesthetics (1892);
TURNBULL, The Advantages and Accidents of Artificial Anaesthesia (1890). Also
citations under ANAESTHESIA, PSYCHIC EFFECT OF DRUGS, and literature there cited.
Anagogic Interpretation [Gr. anagwgikoV, mystical + Lat. interpretatio]: Ger. erhebende Erklärung; Fr. interprétation anagogique; Ital. interpretazione anagogica. One of the ways of interpreting the so-called (in mediaeval times) 'fourfold sense' of Scripture. As contrasted with allegorical interpretation, which refers to redemption as it is already known, anagogic extracts references to future revelations of things heavenly.
This factitious kind of interpretation was known so early as the beginning
of the 5th century (Eucherius), and continued in use more or less till
the Reformation. It is traceable probably to the fixity of dogma which
left theologians little of essential interest to work upon. The following
lines throw some light upon modes of approaching the Scriptures then prevalent:
'Litera gesta docet, quid credas allegoria,
Moralis quid agas, quo tendas anagogia.'
Analgesia or Analgia [Gr. a + algoV, pain]: Ger. Schmerzlosigkeit, Analgie, Analgesie; Fr. analgésie; Ital. analgesia, analgia. Impairment or loss of the sense of pain.
It may occur without involving the loss of tactile sensibility. It occurs in the torpor induced by ANAESTHETICS (q.v.), in certain forms of poisoning, in brain diseases (epilepsy, hysteria), &c., and in diseases of the spinal cord. Emminghaus uses the term Psychic Analgesia to indicate a lowered sensibility, an apathy and indifference to the opinions and feelings of others, or again, to indicate a loss of the finer moral, aesthetic, and social sensibilities. See ANAESTHESIA. (J.J.)
Literature. Physiological: Richet's Dict. de Physiol., art. Anesthésie.
Psychological: see PLEASURE AND PAIN. (J.M.B.)
Analogical Characters: see
Analogies of Experience. The Analogien der Erfahrung of Kant are the rules according to which 'unity of experience arises out of the multiplicity of perceptions' (Krit. d. reinen Vernunft). They are the a priori principles which constitute the persistence of substance and the relations of causality and change in the phenomenal world. Cf. KANTIAN TERMINOLOGY, II, 19, and KANTIANISM.
Literature: citations in EISLER, Wörterb. d. philos. Begriffe;
LAAS, Kant's Analogien d. Erfahrung; the textbooks to Kant by CAIRD, WATSON,
STIRLING, and the histories of philosophy. (J.M.B.
Analogies of Sensation: see
Analogon rationis. Used by Leibnitz
and Wolff for what appears to be reason in the animals. See citations in Eisler,
Wörterb. d. philos. Begriffe, sub verbo. (J.M.B.)
Analogous Organs: Ger. analoge Organe; Fr. organes analogues; Ital. organi analoghi. Those parts or organs of animals or plants which are similar in function though of different origin in development; or, in other words, of different phylogenetic history. See HOMOLOGOUS ORGANS. (C.LL.M. - E.S.G.)
The term in its present biological use, as contrasted with homologous, was
introduced by Richard Owen (The Archetype and Homologies of the Vertebrate
Skeleton, 1848). (C.LL.M.)
Analogy [Gr. analogia, proportion]: Ger. Analogie; Fr. analogie; Ital. analogia. (1) Agreement or similarity in general. (2) Proportion, i.e. agreement or equivalence between the ratios or relationships present in different cases or objects. (3) Such agreement in relationship between two objects as gives real or apparent warrant for an argument from ANALOGY, in logic (q.v.). (4) Such agreement between objects as leads to a use of analogous names, or to a naming of objects according to analogy.
Analogia is used by Plato. By Aristotle the term is defined (Eth. Nic., v. 3) as an equality of ratios, hence requiring for its expression four terms; only, in case of such an expression as 'A is to B as B is to C,' the terms may be only virtually four, since B is taken twice. But as the application to the case of distributive justice at once shows, where the equal or fair distribution of two objects to two persons is in question, Aristotle does not conceive his ratio as necessarily merely quantitative, although he uses the cases of geometrical proportion as illustrative instances. As a fact, the equality of qualitative ratios is very frequent in Aristotle's usage. So in the instance (Metaph. ix. 6, 7) where Aristotle speaks of actual and potential being as the 'same by analogy' in all things, because the statue is to its material as the waking man is to the sleeper. The usage of analogy thus defined is the one that has since become universal. The scholastic use of the adjective analogous, of terms equivocal in usage and applied to objects because of some analogy between them, has an obvious basis in the Aristotelian usage.
Analogous terms or names: equivocal terms, or names of double meaning, where
the doubleness is due not to chance or to arbitrary choice, but to a known connection
or analogy between the objects thus homonymously named. (J.R.)
Analogy (in logic). A kind of resemblance. All derivative uses of the term bear traces of the original restriction to resemblance in relations. Generally it may be defined as resemblance in any feature that does not form part of the constitutive or defining marks whereby the classes to which the things compared are determined. Analogical reasoning is therefore always external in character, and is suggestive rather than probative. Briefly: a form of argument in which, by reason of the identity or similarity between the relationships believed or known to be present in two or more objects, we argue from characters observed or known to co-exist in one of them, to a similar co-existence, not yet observed, in the other, and so predict that this other, if corresponding to the first object in some features, will also correspond in still other features. (R.A. - J.R.)
Analogia is used by Aristotle in the specific sense of identity of ratios, but its cognates were employed by him with the same general meaning which they bear among modern writers. He did not designate any special type of reasoning analogical (though syllogisms turning on relations of proportion were recognized by the commentators); what in his scheme corresponds most closely to analogical reasoning is the argument from 'example' (paradeigma), Aristotle, Anal. Pr., ii. 4.
Kant (Logik, Werke III. 320, ed. R. u. S.) defines induction as inference from what is found in many particulars to the same as universally present, and analogy as inference from many points of resemblance between two things to their resemblance in some other point. Mill (Logic, Bk. III. chap. xx) rightly rejects the Kantian distinction as artificial, and makes the distinctive worth of analogy the absence of knowledge or of assumption that the known features of resemblance from which the argument starts are connected by any general law with the points as to which inference is made.
Literature: ARISTOTLE, KANT, MILL, as cited; JEVONS, Princ. of Sci.,
chap. xxviii; SIGWART, Logik, § 98; BOSANQUET, Logic, Bk. II. chap. iii;
HOPPE, Die Analogie (1873); W. STERN, Die Analogie im volksthümlichen Denken
Analogy (linguistic). Construction or adaptation of the mechanism of language in conformity with what is felt to be a predominant type of mechanism for the expression of like ideas.
The earliest grammatical system of the ancient Greeks, which was concerned preeminently with demonstrating that grammar is an art or tecnh governed by canons (kanoneV), used the term analogy to express conformity to the established canons or inflectional schemes of the language; in the rhetorical schools the analogist came to be what we should now call a purist. In distinction from the older grammar, which was descriptive grammar, because it sought to record and arrange the facts, and artistic because it sought to establish canons the modern historical grammar seeks to understand the facts in accordance with their lines of descent and the historical causes that gave them being. It uses the term, therefore, not in reference to conformity to canons, but to those historical changes of word-form and expression which arise under the operation of certain great psychological principles. Not being concerned with the notion of correctness or incorrectness, it cannot speak of 'false' analogy. When threble appears in place of treble, under influence of three, it is no more 'false' than female in place of *femel (Fr. femelle), under influence of male. Chinee in place of Chinese (sing), or shay in place of chaise, is determined by the ratio tree: trees, or sea: seas, precisely as cherry in place of *cherris (Fr. cerise), or pea in place of *peas (Fr. pois). All association of form in language is found to rest ultimately in association of ideas. Things and their names are indissolubly connected in the folk-consciousness. The natural instinct is therefore to express the like by the like. Association of idea leads therefore directly to association of form. The assignment of the naming material to the idea material being guided by what is immediately present to consciousness, and not by a complete summary of the existing historical material, leads readily to associations which pervert historical conditions. Thus in Latin meridialis, 'southern,' and septentrionalis, 'northern,' the common vowel i induced a distribution which caused that meridi- in the one, and septentri- in the other, should carry the body of the meaning. Consciousness of like function in the endings that extended -onalis from the latter to the former with the result meridionalis.
Likeness of idea may be first suggested by resemblance of form, and this suggested likeness of idea then result in complete adaptation of form. Such are the common phenomena of folk-etymology: thus, causey (Fr. chaussée) suggests that -ey may be intended to denote the same thing as way, and causeway results; but still it is the association of idea, not that of form, which is ultimately responsible for the change. Mere resemblance of external form is never found to effect association without the intervention of ideas. The tendency of analogy is to eliminate the purposeless variety of form-material which mixture of dialect and the destructive action of phonetic laws have produced, and with which tradition offers to endow language, and to introduce unity and simplicity in place of diversity.
Literature: H. PAUL, Principien d. Sprachgesch. (3rd ed., 1898), v;
STRONG-LOGEMAN-WHEELER, Introd. to the Study of the Hist. of Language (1891),
v; B.I. WHEELER, Analogy and the Scope of its Application in Language (1887).
Analogy of Experience. A class-name
given by Kant (Analogie der Erfahrung) to the three a priori principles
of substantiality, causality, and reciprocity or interaction. Cf. KANTIAN TERMINOLOGY
Analogy of Faith, and of Doctrine (in theology): Ger. Analogie (des Glaubens); Fr. analogie (de la foi); Ital. analogia (di fede). Phrases that sprang up in connection with the interpretation of Scripture. Analogy of doctrine is set forth by Augustine in the principle that the interpretation ought to explain the more obscure passages by reference to the 'essential contents of Christian doctrine.' When definite interpretation cannot be obtained, in spite of observance of this rule, it is to be inferred that the matter lies without the sphere of the essential doctrines of the Christian faith. Analogy of faith is regarded differently by Roman Catholics and Protestants respectively; for the latter restrict the sphere of faith to the Bible.
The Council of Trent strictly prohibited all interpretations which were not
in agreement with the unanimous opinion of the Fathers. This opinion constituted
a norm from which the analogy of faith set out. After the Reformation, the analogy
of faith was defined as 'the fundamental articles of faith, or the principal
chapters of the Christian faith, collected from the clearest testimony of the
Scriptures.' In other words, interpretation ought to proceed, in doubtful cases,
upon the analogy to be drawn from the consensus of Scriptures in its perfectly
lucid passages. These form the basis of faith. But the Reformed Church did not
always hold to this attitude. It is notorious that tradition has been reinstated
once more, and this in the form of creeds, of which many examples still exist.
For Literature see EXEGESIS. (R.M.W.)
Analysis [Gr. analnsiV,
from ana + lnein, to loose]:
Ger. Analyse; Fr. analyse; Ital. analisi. The isolation
of what is more elementary from what is more complex by whatever method. Cf.
the following terms. (J.M.B., G.F.S.)
Analysis (in logic): Ger. logische Analyse; Fr. analyse logique; Ital. analisi logica. Literally a resolution, an unloosening of that which has been combined. The kinds of analysis may therefore be analogous, but each will have its special character determined by the nature of the combination to be resolved.
Even within the sphere of logic, this difference is observable. Analysis means, in one sense, the exhibition of the logical form involved in concrete reasoning. In another sense, it is logical in kind, when the attempt is made to show the common character involved in all special cases where the procedure is of the nature of resolution of a given whole.
That Aristotle called the central portion of his logical work Analytical Research indicates that in his view the problem of logic was to resolve the concrete facts of reasoning and demonstration into their elements. He distinguished Prior Analytics (theory of inference) from Posterior Analytics (theory of proof). The Greek mathematicians worked out in detail the relations of the analytical to the synthetical method (cf. Pappus, Coll. Math., Bk. VII), and Descartes' general description of his method (see Port Royal Logic, Pt. IV) is an attempt to apply the same general conceptions as the Greek mathematicians had used to the whole sphere of knowledge. Modern logic exhibits the tendency, not wholly justified, to identify analysis with induction and synthesis with deduction.
Literature: D. STEWART, Philos. of the Human Mind, Pt. II. viii; DUHAMEL,
Méth. dans les Sci. de Raisonnement; G. C. ROBERTSON, Philos. Remains,
82-99; WUNDT, Logik, II. I, i; BIBLIOG. C, 2, l. (R.A.)
Analysis (linguistic): see
Analysis (method of, in education). The separating of a whole into its component parts, in order to discover their relations; as the analysis of a sentence, or of a chemical compound.
The proper use of analysis in instruction depends upon the nature of the subject-matter and the age of the pupils. Herbartian writers often use the term in a peculiar sense, as denoting the preparation of the pupil's mind for the ready assimilation of new knowledge. The knowledge already possessed is 'analysed' in order to bring to the front the most appropriate ideas and feelings. See METHOD (in education).
Literature: REIN, Das erste Schuljahr, 40-41; HERBART, Sci. of Educ.
(trans. by Filkin), 154-8. (C.De G.)
Analysis (psychical or mental): Ger. psychische Analyse; Fr. analyse mentale; Ital. analisi mentale. The mental function which proceeds by the progressive discrimination of the parts or aspects of any kind of whole. (G.F.S., J.M.B.)
Wolf defines analysis as follows: 'The resolution of a notion into the notions of those things which enter into its composition (Psychologia, 339). The attempt to give precision to the concept of mental analysis, however, is modern.
Literature: STUMPF, Tonpsychologie, i. 96 ff.; MEINONG, Beiträge
zur Theorie der psychischen Analyse, in Zeitsch. f. Psychol., vi. 340 and 417;
H. CORNELIUS, Über Verschmelzung und Analyse, in Vtljsch. f. wiss. Philos.,
xvi. (1892), 404 ff.; xvii. (1893), 30 ff.; JAMES, Princ. of Psychol., ii. 344.
Also the textbooks of psychology, in which the mental function of analysis is
often treated under CONCEPTION or ABSTRACTION (q.v.). (G.F.S.
Analysis (psychological): Ger. psychologische Analyse; Fr. analyse psychologique; Ital. analisi psicologica. A general method of psychological study, giving what is known as analytic psychology.
Analysis or analytic procedure in psychology consists in the reduction of complex states of mind to the simpler elements or factors which compose them. This is the object of all science, psychological or other, and any method which accomplishes it is available. Inasmuch, however, as all psychological results are, in the last resort, brought to consciousness for verification, and this verification requires a more or less independent analysis by introspection, the process of using introspection for purposes of analysis has become a recognized method called analysis, or introspective analysis (and its results analytic), in distinction from description (and descriptive). As a body its results are contrasted with those of genetic and those of experimental psychology. It is important that this should be distinguished from psychical or mental analysis (see topic above) -- a distinction for which terms in the four languages are recommended. It is an instance of general distinction between the terms PSYCHICAL (or mental) AND PSYCHOLOGICAL (q.v.).
Literature: the textbooks of psychology. (J.M.B.,
Analytic and Synthetic Judgment: Ger. analytisches und synthetisches Urteil; Fr. jugement analytique et synthétique; Ital. giudizio analitico e sintetico. An analytic judgment is one in which the predicate is obtained or obtainable by analysis of the notion of the subject; a judgment therefore which on the one hand requires no appeal to a ground in experience, and on the other hand has as its sufficient test the principle of contradiction.
The name was introduced by Kant, and the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments is fundamental in his theory of knowledge. The distinction is hardly of logical worth (cf. Sigwart, Logik, § 18). See KANTIAN TERMINOLOGY. (R.A.)
The synthetic judgment, on the other hand, is one of which the predicate is not obtainable by analysis of the subject, but is something added to the subject in the act of judging. The predicate is, therefore, either obtained by experience or contributed by the mind, the latter being the alternative which Kant discusses and affirms in his 'synthetic judgments a priori.' See KANTIAN TERMINOLOGY.
The value of the distinction would seem to depend largely upon one's view of JUDGMENT (q.v.); i.e. upon whether judgment is psychologically a function of change in mental content or one of mere recognition of such change as takes place in conception. If the latter -- as in varying forms is the later and more adequate view -- then the growth of conception, involving both analysis and synthesis, covers at once the two contrasted cases; and judgment in all of its forms represents analysis. The synthetic aspect of conception is simply the growth of experience itself; and the identification of, e.g., AB (the later experience) with A (the earlier), giving A = AB, an apparently synthetic judgment, is psychologically only the recognition by analysis of the growth of A into AB. This view, which may be called the conceptual interpretation of judgment, applies to the combination of judgments in the syllogism (cf. the writer's Handb. of Psychol., i. chap. xiv). In cases of the so-called 'synthetic a priori,' what is 'added' is not content, but character or relation, i.e. universality, and this again is not a matter of judgment. To have a universal is not to judge the particular differently, but to think what is not particular; so judgment again here is but the recognition in analytic terms of what is thought. (J.M.B.)
A distinction partially corresponding to that between analytic and synthetic judgments, but by no means coincident with it, plays a most important part in the philosophies of Locke and Hume. Hume states it as follows: 'There are seven different kinds of philosophical relations [of relations considered as objects of consciousness], viz. resemblance, identity, relations of time and place, proportion in quantity or number, degrees in any quality, contrariety, and causation. These relations may be divided into two classes: into such as depend entirely on the ideas which are compared together, and such as may be chang'd without any change in the ideas. 'Tis from the idea of a triangle that we discover the relation of equality which its three angles bear to two right ones; and this relation is invariable as long as our idea remains the same. On the contrary, the relations of contiguity and distance betwixt two objects may be changed merely by an alteration of their place, without any change in the objects themselves or in their ideas; and the place depends on a hundred different accidents that cannot be foreseen by the mind.' The first class of relations are called by Hume 'relations of ideas,' and the second class 'matters of fact. '
The Humian distinction, inherited from Locke, is not coincident with the Kantian. For instance, the proposition 2 + 2 = 4 is not an analytic judgment in the Kantian sense; for the concept of 2 + 2 need not include, as part of its recognized content, equality to 4. But the proposition expresses what Hume calls a relation of ideas; for it lies in the intrinsic nature of 2 + 2 and 4 to be equal to each other. The same holds true of all mathematical identities. Similarly, Hume would rank many geometrical judgments under the same head, though there is no reason to suppose that he would have admitted them to be analytical in the Kantian sense.
It may be maintained that the Locke-Hume distinction, or a distinction framed
on similar lines, is of far more vital importance to the theory of knowledge
than the distinction between synthetic and analytic judgments as formulated
by Leibnitz and Kant. J. Bergmann has criticized the Kantian system from this
point of view, though without reference to Hume (Gesch. d. Philos.,
32-7). Riehl's distinction between Urtheile and begriffliche Sätze (Vtljsch.
f. wiss. Philos., xvi. 13 f.), and the analogous distinction
of von Kries between Real - Urtheile and Beziehungs-Urtheile, are akin to that
of Hume between relations of ideas and matters of fact. The antithesis between
'bare conjunction' and 'necessary connection,' which plays so large a part in
the philosophy of Bradley, is framed on similar lines (see in particular 'Contradiction,
and the Contrary,' Mind, N.S., No. 20, reprinted in Appendix to Appearance
and Reality, 2nd ed.). (G.F.S.)
Analytic Method: Ger. analytische
Methode; Fr. méthode analytique; Ital. metodo analitico.
See ANALYSIS (psychological) and METHOD.
Anamnesis [Gr. anamnhoiV]:
Anaphase [Gr. ana + fasiV, appearance]; Ger. Anaphase; Fr. anaphase; Ital. anafasi. The later phase of mitosis, or complex nuclear-division, in which the chromosomes are drawn apart so as to divide their substance between the daughter-nuclei. See REPRODUCTION. It was first used by Strasburger in 1884.
Literature: STRASBURGER, Neue Untersuchungen über den Befruchtungsvorgang
bei den Phanerogamen, als Grundlage für eine Theorie der Zeugung; E. B.
WILSON, The Cell in Devel. and Inheritance (1896, with full bibliography). (C.LL.M.)
Anaphia [Gr. a + afh,
touch]: Ger. Anaphe, Anaphie; Fr. anaphie (rarely used;
special forms are paresthésie, anesthésie tactile,
&c.); Ital. anafesia. See ANAESTHESIA. (J.J.)
Anarchism [Gr. a + arch, government]: Ger. Anarchismus; Fr. anarchisme; Ital. anarchismo. The doctrine that every form of government is noxious, and that the individual should be absolutely free to act as he thinks proper. Godwin's Political Justice (1793) puts forward, first in modern times, as the ultimate goal of political progress, 'the dissolution of political government, of that brute engine, which has been the only perennial spring of the vices of mankind' (Bk. V. chap. xxiv, end). (F.C.M. - H.S.)
The growth of modern anarchism as such may be dated from the writings of Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-65). Proudhon is best known by his youthful essay, Qu'est-ce que la propriété? -- containing the famous answer: 'La propriété c'est le vol.' His principal work was La Philosophie de la Misère, published in 1846. Himself a labouring man, Proudhon felt deeply the wretchedness of his class, which he explained, much as socialists have done, by capitalist competition and capitalist monopoly. No satisfactory state of things was attainable, he thought, until the labourer should receive the whole produce of his labour. But he looked for the remedy in unlimited individual freedom, not in state control. The next eminent teacher of anarchism was the German schoolmaster, Caspar Schmidt (1806-56), who took the nom de plume of Max Stirner, and expounded his doctrine in The Individual and his Property, published in the same year as The Philosophy of Misery. Not a man of action, but a philosopher bewildered with much thinking, Max Stirner rejected not only all existing authorities secular or ecclesiastical, but every idea, such as God or humanity, which tended to limit the absolute self-determination of the individual. 'I derive all right and justification from myself alone; for I am entitled to everything which I have power to take or to do.' But these reveries also failed to take hold on the public. For many years after 1848 anarchism appeared to be on the decline, and certainly was not a political force. The revival of anarchism, and the fullest development of whatever brutal and destructive tendencies may be implicit in it, are the work of Russian revolutionists. Of noble birth, and at first an officer in the Russian army, Michael Bakunin (1814-96), before reaching the age of thirty, had convinced himself that anarchy was the only tolerable state of man, and the destruction of all existing laws, institutions, and beliefs the most imperative, indeed the one imperative, duty. Bakunin's writings, though numerous, are fragmentary. But it is he and his school who have done most to prompt the many murders and attempts to murder characteristic of anarchism at the present day. The eminent geographer Élisée Réclus, a singularly upright and amiable man, cherishes the pleasing fancy that all men are, like himself, anxious to further the welfare of humanity. Auberon Herbert disapproves of compulsory taxation, and would trust the maintenance of the State to voluntary liberality. Even from the writings of Herbert Spencer passages might be extracted almost as startling in their restriction of the province of government. Thus anarchism, like its counterpart socialism, admits of innumerable degrees. The crimes which in recent years have marked the course of anarchism may be explained (1) by the savage fanatism which Russian anarchists have infused into the party; (2) by the pressure of misery in Russia, and, to a less extent, in Spain and Italy; and (3) by the spread of moral malady, not confined to anarchists, which makes many people regard assassination as a venial method of prompting and advertising political changes. See SOCIALISM.
Literature: E. V. ZENKER, Anarchism, a Criticism and History of the
Anarchist Theory (with bibliographical references); L. PROAL, Political Crime;
LOMBROSO and LOSCHI, Le Crime Politique; SERNICOLI, L'Anarchia; GAROFALO, Criminologie;
TOSTI, in Polit. Sci. Quart., xiv. 3. (F.C.M.)
Anarthoscope: see POSITION AND MOVEMENT
Anarthria [Gr. a + arqron, a joint]: Ger. Anarthrie; Fr. anarthrie; Ital. anartria. Loss of, or extreme difficulty in, articulation, especially from difficulty in moving the tongue, owing to paralysis of the hypoglossus nerve.
It is a characteristic symptom in bulbar paralysis; is a muscular and wholly
peripheral defect; and involves no cerebral or central aphasic symptoms. Of
special forms of anarthric defects may be mentioned: (1) LALLING (q.v.), an
indistinct utterance due to lack of precision in articulation, which would be
normal in childhood, but should disappear with education (see also ALALIA);
(2) STAMMERING (q.v.), and also STUTTERING (q.v.); and (3) Aphthongia, a rare
disorder in which speech is impossible owing to a spasm of the hypoglossus,
which sets in whenever speech is attempted. Cf. Bastian, Aphasia (1898),
chap. iv. See SPEECH AND ITS DEFECTS (also for Literature). (J.J.)
Anaxagoras. (cir. 500-428 B.C.) Ionian
philosopher. Spent nearly 30 years in Athens, where he enjoyed the friendship
of Pericles; was finally banished on a charge of impiety. See PRE-SOCRATIC
Anaxarchus. Lived in the 4th century
B.C. A Greek philosopher, born in Abdera. An intimate of Alexander the
Anaxilaus. Lived during the 1st century
B.C. A physician and Pythagorean philosopher, born in Larissa. His skill
in natural philosophy brought upon him the charge of practising magic,
for which he was banished from Rome by Augustus.
Anaximander. (cir. 610-546 B.C.) The
second of the Ionian physical philosophers; a pupil and friend of Thales,
the first. He is said to have invented the sundial, and to have taught
the obliquity of the ecliptic, the globe-shape of both the earth and the
sun, and the infinitude of worlds. See PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY (Ionics).
Anaximines. Lived probably about 500
B.C. An eminent Ionian physical philosopher, whose opinions are recorded
by Theophrastus. See PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY (Ionics).
Ancestor Worship [OF. ancestre, from Lat. antecessor, one who goes before]: Ger. Ahnencult; Fr. culte des ancêtres; Ital. culto degli antenati. The worship of dead ancestors. (J.M.B., G.F.S.)
The whole question of ancestor worship is still in a transition stage. It is prevalent among peoples of the Indo-European, the Mongolian, and, in some degree, the Semitic stock. But the precise relation of this social and family idea to the prevalent religion, and the reasons for the growth of the custom, are as yet in dispute.
Literature: CALAND, Ueber Totenverehrung bei eimgen d. indog. Völker;
ROBERTSON SMITH, Religion of the Semites; F.B. JEVONS, Introd. to the Hist.
of Religion; MAINE, Early Law and Custom; H. SPENCER, Sociology; F. MAX MÜLLER,
Anthropol. Religion; v. ADRIAN, Der Höhenkultus asiatischer u. europäischer
Völker; DE BEAUREPAIRE, Du culte des ancêtres chez les Romains; BOÜINAIS
and PAULUS, Culte des Morts dans l'Emp. Céleste et l'Annam; E. CAIRD,
Evolution of Religion, I. 239 f. (R.M.W.)
Ancestral Inheritance: see
GASTON'S LAW (of ancestral inheritance).
Andronicus Rhodus (of Rhodes).
He lived about 80 B.C.; collected and arranged the writings of Aristotle.
Angel, Angelology [Gr. aggeloV, a messenger, + logoV, discourse]: Ger. Engel, Angelologie; Fr. ange, angélologie; Ital. angelo, angelologia. A messanger, i.e. one entrusted with a special mission; but, in theology, either a theophany or, more usually, a spiritual being intermediate between God and man. Angelology is a systematic discussion of the nature and office of angels.
The conception of angels may be said to have flourished in three main periods: (1) that represented by the scriptures of the Old and New Testaments; (2) the period of the Alexandrian school and of the early 'heretics' -- the Gnostics and Manichaeans; (3) in the mediaeval thought of the Latin Church. Parallel beings are, of course, incident to many pre-Christian faiths.
Literature: SCHULTZ, Bib. Theol. of the Old Testament; WEISS, Bib. Theol.
of the New Testament; works on the ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL (q.v.); MATTER, F.C. BAUR,
LIPSIUS, and MANSEL on GNOSTICISM (q.v.); works of F.C. BAUR, BEAUSOBRE, TRESCHSEL,
FLÜGEL, GEYLER, and KESSLER on MANICHAEISM (q.v.); AQUINAS, Summa Totius
Theol., i. 44-74, 99, 105-15; S.J. HUNTER, Dogmatic Theol., ii. 265 f.; P. D'ERCOLE,
Il Teismo (1884); relative arts. in HERZOG, HASTINGS, CHEYNE (Dictionaries).
Anger [ME. anger]: Ger. Zorn; Fr. colère; Ital. collera. A painful emotion essentially characterized by the tendency to destroy or to break down opposition. (G.F.S. - J.M.B.)
Anger is usually considered one of the primitive emotions, closely associated with fear, and is thought to have arisen in connection with the reactions of defence which situations of fear would call out. Both psychologically and in its muscular (and other) expressions, however, it tends to supersede fear, taking on forms of positive opposition and aggression, where fear alone results in inaction or flight. The expressions of anger -- apart from organic changes -- involve the muscles of the eyebrows and jaws, facts which suggest the utilities of clear vision with protection of the eyes, and biting. The vaso-motor changes are those of intense flushing; rather than the reverse, as in cases of extreme fear. Cf. EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION.
Literature: BAIN, Emotions and Will, chap. ix; DARWIN, Expression of
Emotions, 240 f.; JESSEN, Versuch ü. Psychol..; JAMES, Princ. of Psychol.,
ii. 409, 460, 478; H. M. STANLEY, Evolutionary Psychol. of Feeling, chap. x;
STOUT, Manual of Psychol., 307 f. (J.M.B., G.F.S.)
Angiosthenia: see ASTHENIA.
Angles of Displacement: Ger. Erhebungswinkel und Seitenwendungswinkel (des Blickes); Fr. angle ascensionnel du regard et angle de déplacement latéral (de l'oeil); Ital. angoli di spostamento visuale. The angles of vertical and lateral displacement (see DONDERS' LAW) are used by Helmholtz to determine the direction of the line of regard. The former measures the departure of the plane of regard, upwards or downwards, from the primary position; the latter is the angle made by the present line of regard with the median line of the plane of regard.
Literature: HELMHOLTZ, Physiol. Optik (2nd ed.), 617. (E.B.T.)
Anglo-Catholic (or Oxford)
Movement: see TRACTARIANISM.
Anima: see TERMINOLOGY (Latin).
Anima Mundi [Lat.]: see WORLD SOUL.
Animal [Lat.]: Ger. Thier; Fr. animal; Ital. animale. There is no short and simple definition by which the animal can be so labelled as to be clearly distinguished from the plant. Perhaps the nearest approach we can make to such a concise definition is that an animal is a living organism which is unable to manufacture protoplasm from inorganic materials. Cf. LIFE, and VITAL PROPERTIES.
For a sketch of the earlier stages in the concept 'animal,' Huxley's article (see below), 'On the Border Territory between the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms,' should be consulted. At present the higher animals are readily distinguished from the higher plants by the nature of their life-history and mode of development, by the manner of their nutrition, by the distribution of energy rendered possible by a more or less developed nervous system, and by the relative preponderance of certain qualities of the protoplasm which is common to both animals and plants. Only among some of the lower organisms do we find any difficulty. And it is now generally agreed that 'in grouping organisms as plants or as animals, we are not called upon to apply a definition, but to consider the multifarious evidences of historical evolution' (Lankester). 'The real question at issue in determining the position of any doubtful organism is not the possession of this, that, or the other character which may have been used to ticket the animal or vegetable kingdom, but whether the whole life-history of the organism indicates a nearer blood-relationship to groups of undoubted plants or undoubted animals. All simple forms should be regarded as so far common property that they should be studied equally by zoologists and botanists' (D.H. Scott).
Literature: HUXLEY, Collected Essays, viii, Essay vi; HAECKEL, Phylogenie
der Protesta u. Pflanzen; TIEGHEM, Traité de Botanique (2nd ed.); LANKESTER,
art. Protozoa, Encyc. Brit. (9th ed.). (C.LL.M.)
Animal Heat: Ger. thierische Wärme; Fr. chaleur animale; Ital. calore animale. The heat of the living animal body is a continuous evolution of energy due in ultimate analysis to combustion of constituents of the tissues or food materials.
Animals were formerly divided into warm-blooded (mammals and birds) and cold-blooded. A more exact designation, now generally used, classes them as: (1) homothermous (of uniform body temperature), birds and mammals, and (2) poikilothermous (of variable temperature), all other animals. Homothermous animals maintain a uniform body temperature by means of heat-regulating mechanisms which control both heat production (contraction of muscles, shivering) and heat dissipation (fluffing up of feathers or hair, perspiration), paling or blushing of the skin (see VASO-MOTOR SYSTEM). The normal temperature for man is about 37.1o C.(98.9o F.) for the armpit, 37.3o C. in the mouth, 37.6o C. in the rectum. Muscle is the great heat-producing tissue; the large glands, notably the liver, rank next; and the brain has also been proved to be an important heat-producing organ.
Literature: A. MOSSO, Die Temperature des Gehirns (Leipzig, 1894); general
works given under PHYSIOLOGY. (C.F.H.)
Animal Magnetism: see HYPNOSIS.
Animal Psychology: Ger. Thierpsychologie;
Fr. psychologie animale; Ital. psicologia animale. See COMPARATIVE
PSYCHOLOGY, and PSYCHOLOGY.
Animal Worship: Ger. Verehrung der Thiere, Thierverehrung; Fr. culte des animaux; Ital. culto degli animali. As the name indicates, Animal Worship implies either (1) that animals are believed to possess in some crude sense deities worthy of worship; or (2) that they are associated with some sacred person, conception, or custom, and are therefore sanctified.
(1) This is the earlier phase, and is intimately connected with the psychological ideas incident to primitive ANIMISM (q.v.). In this early stage, too, social reasons, whatever they may have been, especially in connection with TOTEMISM (q.v.), were potent. (2) At a later stage, when FETICHISM (q.v.) was fully developed, certain animals came to be regarded as incarnations of divinities or, still later, as specially sacred to some god. The ancient Egyptian religion, Brahmanism, and contemporary Hinduism are the most noted instances of this. The entire subject is still obscure.
Literature: TYLOR, Primitive Culture, i. 467 f.; ii. 229 f. The view
which excludes the influence of Totemism is represented by WIEDEMANN in Die
Religion d. alten Aegypter, 94 f. See also FRAZER, The Golden Bough, and many
notes in his edition of Pausanias. (R.M.W.)
Animalcule [Lat. animalculum, little animal]: Ger. Tierchen; Fr. animalcule; Ital. animaletto, animalculo. (1) A vague term for a microscopic organism, now called micro-organisms; generally applied to the infusoria.
Used in early times for any small animal. More speaks of flies and gnats and such-like bold animalcula; and Carlyle calls the spiders the basest of created animalcules. The use of the microscope caused a narrowing of the usage. (C.LL.M.)
(2) Used by Leeuwenhoeck and his pupils (1677) for the preformed germ of man,
and other animals, in the spermatozoon. See ANIMALCULIST. (E.M.)
Animalculist: Ger. Präformist; Fr. spermatiste, animalculiste; Ital. animalculista. One who believes that the male germinal cell or spermatozoon is or contains a miniature model of the organism into which it is to develop.
Ludwig Hamm, a pupil of Leeuwenhoeck (1677), is credited with the discovery of the spermatozoon. By many it was regarded as a parasitic animal; and Johann Müller, in 1842, regarded the question as undecided. But Spallanzani (1786) showed that the fertilizing power lay not in the fluid but in the contained spermatozoa. The animalculist believed that each spermatozoon contained in miniature the future organism which, in the early stages of its development, received nutriment from the ovum. Together with the ovists they are classed as preformationists or preformists. The development of this modern cell-theory has made the animalculist hypothesis, in anything like its original form, quite untenable. Cf. PREFORMATION.
Literature: Y. DELAGE, Protoplasma . . . et l'Hérédité
Animism (in anthropology) [Lat. anima, soul]: Ger. Animismus; Fr. animisme; Ital. animismo, dottrina animistica. There are three more or less current uses of the term Animism in ethnology and the science of religions: (1) it signifies belief in the animation of all nature, which does not imply the existence of agents distinct from visible bodies; (2) the belief in something dwelling in bodies but distinct from them; this something, however, may still be material; (3) the belief that bodies are animated or inhabited by the ghosts of departed men. The second usage is in the main that of Tylor; the third view is developed in the GHOST-THEORY (q.v.) of Spencer. It is the second meaning which -- especially in its higher form, and independently of the truth of the ghost-theory -- illustrates the principles of PERSONIFICATION (q.v.). (L.M. - J.M.B. - G.F.S.)
Animism, in some of its forms, is one of the most important principles pervading the philosophy of primitive peoples, and has left its traces upon customs and habits of thought in all stages of culture down to the present. Its most specific application was to the explanation of the forces of nature. Everything not obviously to be accounted for by material causes was believed to be in some way animated. The sun and moon, the winds and rains, the harvest and dearth, good and ill fortune, sickness and death were conceived of as animate beings to be feared and appeased, to be worshipped and attended.
The theory of animism of Herbert Spencer (3) includes the belief in the existence of a human spirit apart from the body and surviving the death of the body in a life after death. This conception may have been suggested by the experiences of dreams and trance, of visions, and by the attacks of nervous disease. Around it has developed an elaborate variety of customs and beliefs affecting almost all the exigencies and fortunes of life. The worship of ancestors, the transmigration of souls, the doctrine of the life beyond the grave, the magical influencing of other persons and events by sorcery and witchcraft, the intercourse with demons and fairies, and a host of superstitious customs and rules of conduct, all find a more or less definite origin in one or another of the ramifications of this primitive conception. These two doctrines -- the existence of powerful spirits or deities in nature and of individual souls as separate from and surviving the body -- form the two great dogmas of developed religious animism.
A specific development of this general belief is known as FETICHISM (q.v.); in this doctrine the connection of the spirit or force with some material representative becomes of fundamental importance. The meaning of the fetich is, however, in dispute. Cf. also MAGIC, EJECTION, and INTROJECTION. (J.J. - J.M.B.)
Literature: A. RÉVILLE, Prolégomènes de l'Hist.
des Religions. GOBLET D'ALVIELLA, L'idée de Dieu d'après l'Anthropol.
et l'Hist.; TYLOR, Primitive Culture, chapters on Animism; also in briefer form
in the art. Animism in Encyc. Brit., and in chap. xiv of Tylor's Anthropology;
H. SPENCER, Princ. of Sociol.; F. B. JEVONS, An Introd. to the Hist. of Religion;
GIRARD DE RIALLE, Mythol. Comparée (1878); J. G. FRAZER, The Golden Bough
(1890). (L.M. - J.J.)
Animism (in philosophy). The view that the soul (anima), however conceived, is the cause or principle of life.
Applied to Aristotle's theory of the relation of soul and body, and held by the Stoics. The point of view was developed and refined by the scholastics, without, however, losing the material connotation of the term which attaches to the Greek conception. Applied also to the theory of WORLD SOUL (q.v.), and illustrated in HYLOZOISM (q.v.). It is attributed to Leibnitz (see MONADOLOGY); and finally it is used to express the form of VITALISM (q.v.), which makes life (or life and mind) the directive principle in evolution and growth. Logically considered, philosophical animism is an early and cruder form of the monism which takes on a more refined phase in SPIRITUALISM (q.v.).
Literature: see the citations in EISLER, Wörterb. d. philos. Begriffe,
sub verbo; WUNDT, Syst. d. Philos., 210; PAULSEN, Introd. to Philos. (Eng. trans.).
Anisometropia [Gr. a
+ isoV, equal, + metron,
a measure, + wj, the eye]: Ger Anisometropie;
Fr. anisométrie; Ital. anisometropia. An inequality in
the refractive mechanism of the two eyes. See VISION (defects of). (J.J.)
Ankle Clonus: Ger. Fussclonus; Fr.
clonus du pied; Ital. clono del piede. A tendon reflex (see REFLEX
ACTION) diagnostic of lateral SCLEROSIS (q.v.), spastic PARALYSIS (q.v.), and
other diseases of the spinal cord. It is produced by artificially flexing the
foot at the ankle, and consists of rhythmical contractions of the muscles of
the calf of the leg. (H.H.)
Anlage [Ger.]: there is no adequate French term,
the best translation is rudiment (Y.D.); Ital.
rudimento (E.M.). See RUDIMENT, and cf. DISPOSITION.
It is contrary to the genius of the English language, and especially to scientific
usage, to introduce non-classical words, such as Anlage, preserving the inflections.
Its use is, therefore, not recommended. See TERMINOLOGY (German). (H.H.)
Annett or Annet, Peter. (died 1769.)
An English deistical writer.
Annihilation [Pat. Lat. adnihilare, ad + nihil, to bring to nought]: Ger. Vernichtung; Fr. annihilation; Ital. annientamento. The doctrine which teaches complete destruction of the wicked or 'unregenerate,' as opposed to their eternal punishment in the world to come, is called Annihilationism.
This dogma has never been formally incorporated in any creed, but has been taught from time to time by various theologians, though seldom in its full force. (Cf. CONDITIONAL IMMORTALITY.) Arnobius of Sicca (cir. 310 A.D.) and Faustus Socinus are its older representatives. In modern times E. White, of Hereford, England (1846), and C.F. Hudson, of New England, have written the most important books on the subject. Richard Rothe is the most distinguished theologian who has paid attention to it. It was held by Whately and Isaac Barrow, and Locke made reference to it.
Literature: SALMOND, The Christ. Doctrine of Immortality, 594 f.; for
Locke, see LORD KING, Life of Locke, ii. 139 f. (R.M.W.)
Annunciation [Lat. annunciatio, ad + nuntiare, to announce to]: Ger. Verkündigung; Fr. annonciation; Ital. annunziazione. The name given to the visit of the angel Gabriel to Mary, when he announced the beginning of the Incarnation.
The origin of the Church feast-day is unknown. Documentary evidence for it
exists so far back as 492 A.D. It is now observed on March 25, though December
18 and the fourth Sunday in Advent were assigned by the Council of Toledo (656)
and the Milan Church respectively. The controversy on the subject raged in the
Latin Church from the 12th till the 15th century, and was finally ended by Sixtus
IV, in 1480, when the feast was sanctioned with a special office. It thus passed
from the Eastern into the Western Church. (R.M.W.)
Anodyne [Gr. a + odunh,
pain]: Ger. schmerzstillendes (or linderndes) Mittel; Fr.
anodin; Ital. anodino. A remedy which relieves pain by lowering
the irritability of local nerves or of the brain; called also analgesic (T.
Anoia, Anoea, Anoesia [Gr. anoia,
want of understanding]: Ger. Blödsinn, Anoia; Fr. idiotie,
imbécillité; Ital. anoia, idiozia. See IDIOCY.
Anomalous Colour-system. A suggested rendering of the German Anomales Farben-system. Colour equations which hold for one individual hold also with very slight exceptions for nearly every other individual; the exceptional cases also all belong, so far as yet known, to a single type called the Anomalous System.
Such individuals are few in number; out of seventy persons examined in this respect by König and Dieterici three only had the exceptional colour-system. They were first noticed by Lord Rayleigh, later by Donders, and they have been thoroughly tested by means of spectral light equations by König and Dieterici. The abnormality exists only in red and green and it may be described by saying that the curve for the green constituent of white light has a transitional position between the red curve and the green curve of the normal eye. To make yellow out of red and green they require only one-third as much green as do individuals with normal eyes.
Literature: HELMHOLTZ, Physiol. Optik (2nd ed.), 359; RAYLEIGH, Nature
(1881); KÖNIG and DIETERICI, Zeitsch. f. Psychol. (1892). (C.L.F.)
Anomaly (mental) [Gr. a
+ omaloV, even, from omoV,
same, common]: Ger geistige Abnormität; Fr. anomalie mentale;
Ital. anomalia mentale. A marked deviation from the normal or typical
mental endowment or functioning; any such irregularity implying something exceptional
or unusual. The term anomaly is used in reference to physical structures and
functions, to mental processes and traits, as well as to general occurrences.
Many of the traits and symptoms studied in abnormal psychology can be characterized
as mental anomalies. (J.J.)
Anorthopia [Gr. a +
orqoV, straight, + wy,
eye]: Ger. Anorthopie; Fr. strabisme; Ital. anortopia.
Obliquity of vision; squinting. See VISION (defects of). (J.J.)
Anorthoscope: see LABORATORY AND APPARATUS,
III. B. (a), (9).
Anosmia [Gr. a + osmh, smell]: Ger. Anosmie, Anosmia; Fr. anosmie; Ital. anosmia. Lack, loss, or impairment of the sense of smell; olfactory anaesthesia. Like all defects of the special senses, it may be due to disorder of or interference with the function of any portion of the sense-mechanism from centre to periphery. Aside from local disorders and injuries to the head, it may result from tumours, or from the decline of sensibility with old age, and may be associated with other symptoms of loss of function in other parts of the cerebral mechanism.
Literature: ROSS, Dis. of the Nerv. Syst. (1881-5); ZWARDEMAKER, Physiol.
d. Geruchs; ARONSOHN, Zur Physiol. d. Geruchs (1886); J. PASSY, Sur les sensations
olfactives, Année Psychol., ii. 382 f. (J.J.)
Anschauung [Ger.]: see TERMINOLOGY (German).
Anselm, Saint. (1033-1109). A pupil
of Lanfranc at the abbey of Bec in Normandy, where he became a monk and
succeeded Lanfranc as prior. He became abbot of Bec and archbishop of Canterbury.
See ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT, and THEISM.
Anselmian Argument (for the
existence of God): see ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT. From Anselm, of Canterbury.
Antagonism [Gr. anti + agwnixesqai, to struggle against]: Ger. Antagonismus, Antagonisten (of muscles or nerves); Fr. antagonisme (musculaire et nerveux), poisons antagonistes (of drugs); Ital. antagonismo. Used of muscles which oppose the action of other muscles, e.g. flexors and extensors, adductors and abductors, inspiratory and expiratory, sphincters and dilators. See MUSCLE.
The word is used also to designate nerves which cause opposite effects on the same organ, as the inhibitory and accelerator nerves of the heart, the constrictor and dilator nerves of the iris and of the blood-vessels.
A third physiological use of the term relates to opposing actions of drugs, notable examples being muscarin and atropin, strychnin and atropin or chloroform.
Literature: antagonistic physiological action is fully discussed in
Richet's Dict. de Physiol. See also WALLER, Human Physiol., and the general
works given under PHYSIOLOGY. For antagonism of drugs see T. LAUDER-BRUNTON,
Pharmacology, 495. (C.F.H.)
Antagonistic Colour: Ger. Gegenfarbe;
Fr. couleur antagonistique; Ital. colore antagonistico. Hering's
term for COMPLEMENTARY COLOUR (q.v.). Cf. VISION. (E.B.T.)
Antecedent (in logic) [Lat. ante + cedo]: Ger. vorhergehend (general), antecedens (in logic); Fr. antécédent; Ital. antecedente. Literally, antecedent is that which goes before, primarily in space, then in time.
In logic, the sense of precedent in time is still retained when the term appears
in the treatment of inductive reasoning, otherwise the derived meaning of GROUND
(q.v.) or condition is the most common. The antecedent as statement of that
from which the logical CONSEQUENT (q.v.) is asserted to follow, forms one element
of every hypothetical judgment. (R.A.)
Antenna [Lat. antenna, a sail-yard]: Ger. Fühlhorn; Fr. antenne; Ital. antenna. A jointed appendage of the head in some arthropods. In insects the antennae probably represent the anterior paired metameric appendages, modified for use as organs of sense. (C.LL.M. - E.S.G.)
In the antennae of ants and bees there are, according to Lubbock, at least eight different types of sensory organs, consisting of modified hairs or sensillae (Whitman) and pits. Some are tactile, some probably auditory, others gustatory; while of others the sensory value is unknown.
Literature: LUBBOCK, The Senses of Animals (1888); E. KORSCHELT and
K. HEIDER, Lehrb. d. vergl. Entwicklungsgesch. d. wirbellosen Thiere; WHITMAN,
Woods Holl Biol. Lectures (1898); WHEELER, Contrib. to Insect Morphology, J.
of Morphol., viii. (1893). (C.LL.M.)
Anthropoid [Gr. anqrwpoV, man, + eidoV, form]: Ger. Menschenaffen, menschenähnliche Affen; Fr. anthropoïdes; Ital. antropoidi. In the broader sense the sub-order of the Primates, which includes man; in the narrower sense, the family which comprises the manlike apes.
As now defined, the sub-order Anthropoidea contains five families, viz.: (5) Hominidae (man); (4) Simiidae (apes); (3) Cercopithecidae (baboons); (2) Cebidae (American monkeys): (1) Hapalidae (marmosets).
The family of the Simiidae or anthropoid apes includes the gibbons of S. E. Asia, the orangs of Sumatra and Borneo, the gorillas of W. Equatorial Africa, the chimpanzees of W. and Central Equatorial Africa. Probably none of these are on the direct line of human descent. In their teeth the gibbons, in their brain-structure the orangs, in their size the gorillas, and in the sigmoid curvature of the vertebral column the chimpanzees most closely resemble man. (C.LL.M.)
The families Cercopithecidae, Simiidae, and Hominidae form the group Catarrhini, distinguished by the possession of a narrow nasal septum, a skull with the auditory bulla not swollen and a long external auditory meatus, a dentition of 32 teeth, each side of each jaw having 2 premolars and 3 molars, and a completely opposable pollex.
In their general structure the apes (Simiidae) approach very closely to man, as in the absence of tail, the semi-erect posture (resting on finger-tips or knuckles), the vertebral column, the shape of the sternum and pelvis, the adaptation of the arm for pronation and supination, the presence of a long vermiform appendix to the short caecum of the intestine, the size of the cerebral hemispheres, and the complexity of their convolutions. Yet in certain respects, as in the proportion of the limbs, the development of the bony ridges of the skull, the adaptation of the foot as a climbing and grasping organ, the higher apes represent a line of development from which the human has diverged.
Man differs from the anthropoid apes chiefly in the reduction of the hairy covering and its special local development on the scalp and face; in the development of a large lobule to the external ear; in the fully erect attitude in walking, the flattened walking foot with a large non-opposable hallux, the straightened limb-bones, widened pelvis, and pronounced sigmoid curve of the vertebral column; in the perfected structure for the rotation of the arm and fore-arm, and the further adaptation of the hand as a delicate organ of prehension and touch; in the small size of the canine teeth, and diminution in size of the molars from before backwards; in the arrangement of the teeth in a continuous crescentic or horseshoe-shaped row without diastema; in the development of a mental prominence (chin) on the lower jaw, and the small size of the jaws relatively to the immense development of the brain-case, accompanied by the shortening of the basi-cranial axis, shifting forward of the foramen magnum, and elevating of the facial region into an almost vertical plane; in the reduction of the supraciliary ridges, and development of a projecting nose.
Most of the differences between man and the apes in the structure of the skull and shape of the head are directly related to the great increase in size of the human brain. The average cranial capacity of man is about 1500 c.c., and that of the higher apes about 490 c.c. (the maximum in the gorilla being 621 c.c.). The cranial capacity of man is therefore roughly three times that of the apes.
The relative weight of the human brain, as compared with the weight of the whole body, is very superior to that of other orders of Mammalia; but inferior to that of many of the smaller Primates. The superiority of the human brain in absolute weight is, however, very great. Whereas the average weight of the brain of the larger apes is at most 400 gr., that of man is about 1400 gr. The average human brain is, therefore, more than three times the weight of the average simian. The minimum weight of the normal human brain is rarely, if ever, less than double that of the maximum simian.
In the brain of man the hemispheres are relatively larger and more convoluted, principally in the frontal region, which appears to be more especially concerned with the exercise of the higher faculties and with speech. The anthropoid brain is generally distinguished by the presence of a conspicuous transverse groove (simian fissure) between the parietal lobes and the overlapping edge of the occipital lobe. Cf. BRAIN (comparative anatomy).
The gap between man and the ape has to a considerable extent been bridged over by the discovery of remains of fossil men, and of an extinct Primate, Pithecanthropus, which appears to be intermediate in structure between the two. The fragments of Pithecanthropus erectus, Dubois, were found by E. Dubois in Java (Pleistocene?), and consist of a femur, teeth, and the upper region of a skull (calvarium), not necessarily belonging to the same individual. The skull appears to have been low and depressed, with strong supraciliary ridges, elongated (cephalic index 70), and with an estimated capacity of 855 c.c. The corresponding brain-weight is estimated at 750 gr. The teeth are very large, and the femur quite human. Pithecanthropus is believed by some authors to be on the direct line of human descent.
The most important remains of fossil (Quaternary) men are the Neanderthal calvarium from near Elberfeld (Prussia), a lower jaw from La Naulette near Dinant (Belgium), fragments of crania from La Denise (France), skeletons found at Spy (Belgium) and in Kent (Galley Hill Terrace Gravels). All these remains show, so far as their condition allows, a low elongated cranium of essentially normal capacity, with large supraciliary ridges; the molars decrease not at all or very little from before backwards; and the mental prominence is rudimentary in the lower jaws of Spy, and absent in the jaw of La Naulette. (E.S.G.)
Literature: T. H. HUXLEY, Man's Place in Nature (1863); FLOWER and LYDEKKER,
Mammals Living and Extinct (1891); P. TOPINARD, L'Homme dans la Nature (1891);
R. HARTMANN, Anthropoid Apes (1885); A. H. KEANE, Ethnology (1895); E. DUBOIS,
Pithecanthropus erectus, eine Uebergangsform aus Java (1894); also in Proc.
4th Int. Cong. of Zool. (1899); O. C. MARSH, Amer. J. of Sci  i. (1896);
J. FRAIPONT and M. LOHEST, La Race Humaine de Néanderthal ou de Candstadt
en Belgique, Arch. de Biol., v. 7 (1887); HAECKEL, Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte,
and Anthropogenie; MORSELLI, Antropol. gen.: Lezioni sull' Uomo (Turin, 1888-1900).
(C.LL.M. - E.S.G.)
Anthropology [Gr. anqrwpoV, man, + logoV, discourse]: Ger. Anthropologie; Fr. anthropologie; Ital. antropologia. The science of man, or the natural history of mankind.
The term anthropology has fluctuated in usage considerably; and even at the present day is somewhat differently conceived by different nations and authors. The term was used by Aristotle, but somewhat inexactly. In the 16th to 18th centuries it was frequently employed in a purely physical sense, as synonymous with human anatomy and physiology; and by another school of writers in a psychological and also in an ethical and religious sense. Kant, while considering in other connections the origin of races, devotes his treatise on Anthropology to a specifically psychological discussion. Although it had been, for a long period, theoretically defined as the science and natural history of mankind, it was not generally used in this sense until the beginning of the present century. There was, and still is, a tendency amongst Germans to regard the term as synonymous with physical anthropology or SOMATOLOGY (q.v.), and amongst the French to use the expression anthropologie générale for the science in its broadest aspects. With many French writers anthropology is the physical description -- mental also, but mainly physical -- of the different races of man; the study of the manners, customs, habits, religions, &c., belongs to ethnography or ethnology. In the description here given, an attempt is made to interpret the most authoritative consensus regarding the significance of the term in current usage.
The most general, as well as the most desirable, use of the term gives it a significance broad enough to include the various lines of interest and study which contribute to a knowledge of the nature of man and the story of his development and occupation of the earth; and yet definite enough to give the study of anthropology a specific, consistent, and useful place among the sciences. It will contribute to a clearer conception of anthropology to bear in mind that a science receives its distinctive characteristics quite as much from the point of view from which it approaches its facts, and from the purposes and guiding conceptions which dominate it, as from the nature of the groups of facts which make up its material content; and likewise that one science should not be regarded as including in its own domain one or more other sciences because it utilizes or depends for certain classes of facts upon the results contributed by such sciences. Anthropology and anatomy both study minutely the physical characteristics of the human body, but the points of view, and the purposes of the two, are quite different; nor does anthropology in any legitimate sense include anatomy because its progress in certain directions depends upon the data which the latter supplies. In other directions a similar relation obtains between anthropology and geology, psychology, physiology, sociology, linguistics, history, and other departments of study. 'Anthropology should not too ambitiously strive to include within itself the sciences which provide so much of its wealth,' but 'it is the office of anthropology to collect and co-ordinate [the results concerning man furnished by other sciences], so as to elaborate as completely as may be the synopsis of man's bodily and mental nature, and the theory of his whole course of life and action from his first appearance on earth' (Tylor).
More specifically, anthropology may be described as that department of knowledge which renders an account of man's origin and distribution over the earth, and his relation to other animals; of the various types, races, or varieties of mankind and their relations, historical, physical, and psychological, to one another; of the development of the arts and sciences, industries, and occupations of the human race; of the organization of man in society, and the complex and endlessly variable forms of custom and belief in which such organization finds expression; of man's mental nature and the various forms of thought-habits and tendencies, myths and superstitions, rites and cults, in which it is reflected; and furthermore, anthropology assumes the task of interpreting, in all these respects, the relics of man's most ancient and primitive occupation, and of collecting similar data in regard to the undeveloped peoples now extant. The historically recorded phases of these subjects must logically also be included within the realm of anthropology; but it is the peculiar function of that science to consider the prehistoric phases, utilizing as comparative aids the data of history.
In common with all the biological sciences, anthropology has shared in the renaissance which has come from the application of evolutionary and developmental conceptions to the problems of origin and growth. The discussion of man's place in nature and his derivation from less developed forms of animal life, which is sometimes known as anthropogenesis or anthropogeny, formed one of the first and most hotly contested discussions in the history of the doctrine of evolution, while no consensus has as yet been reached in regard to the derivation of his mental endowments from those of the higher animals, or the precise relation of the two to each other. The comparative method has likewise been fertile in anthropology not only in tracing kinship and migrations of races and thought-habits, in suggesting intercommunication and the order and direction of customs and beliefs, but as well in exhibiting the general similarities and specific differences of the arts and sciences, the mental and material occupations of mankind under different and independent conditions. The comparative method has also been serviceable in furnishing to anthropological studies a sense of reality by revealing numerous and salient points of similarity between the customs and beliefs suggested by the relics of primitive peoples or found current amongst savages, and those in vogue in past civilizations or surviving from these into our own times. (J.J.)
It is convenient to recognize certain main divisions of anthropology, and to recognize as well that these are frequently not sharply separated from one another, and stand in constant and intimate relations to other sciences. Amid the very great diversity in the mode of drawing these distinctions, the following stand out as the most usual and important.
On the one hand, human individual anatomy and physiology are generally excluded as belonging to the wider science of biology, in its zoological division, and, on the other hand, psychology and philology are generally given independent rank. Omitting these, the following scheme (which should be compared with that given under BIOLOGY) will suffice to indicate the subdivisions of the science.
1. Natural History of Man: a. Physical characteristics (Anthropography, ANTHROPOMETRY: sometimes called somatology); b. Relations to other organisms and to environment (Anthroponomics).
2. Distribution in space and time: Geographical and Historical Ethnography.
3. Aetiology and Evolution: The descent of man and the origin of races (ETHNOLOGY).
4. The relations of man in Social Communities, with psychological variations, descriptive and aetiological (SOCIOLOGY, CRIMINAL ANTHROPOLOGY, and RACE PSYCHOLOGY, by many regarded as separate branches of science).
5. His progress as represented in things and institutions (ARCHAEOLOGY, History of Culture). See the terms in heavy type; also FOLKLORE. (C.LL.M. - J.M.B. - J.J.)
Literature (general): E.B. TYLOR, Anthropology (consult selected list of books there given); also art. Anthropology, in Encyc. Brit. (9th ed.), and Researches in the Early History of Mankind; RANKE, Der Mensch; PRITCHARD, Nat. Hist. of Mankind; HUXLEY, Essays, vii; P. TOPINARD, Anthropology; BUCKLAND, Anthropol. Stud.; DE QUATREFAGES and HAMY, Crania ethnica; VERNEAU, Les races humaines; E. MORSELLI, Antropol. Gen., Turin (1888-1900); HERVÉ and HOVELACQUE, Précis d'Anthropol. (1887); KEANE, Ethnology, and Man, Past and Present (1899); RATZEL, Völkerkunde, i. (1895); ACHELIS, Moderne Völkerkunde (1896); WAITZ, Introd. to Anthropol. (Eng. trans., i. only, 1863).
For special departments of anthropology, see special terms and bibliographies
given in the larger treatises, in the journals devoted to Anthropology, for
a list of which, as well as for detailed references, see 'Anthropology,' &c.
in Index Catalogue of the Surgeon-General Library, i. (1880), and second series
i. (1896). Recent more popular works are HADDON, The Study of Man (1897); and
DENIKER, The Races of Man (1899). (J.J.)
Anthropology (in theology). The name given to that section of doctrinal or dogmatic theology which treats of man in his actual and ideal relations to God, or of man the 'subject' of the kingdom of God.
The history of the subject as a whole relates mainly to the articulation of anthropology with the other parts of the doctrinal system. Among the most noteworthy of the varying arrangements are those of Calvin, Cocceius, Schleiermacher, Hagenbach, Lipsius, and I.A. Dorner. A. Ritschl and his followers have developed a view of the subject-matter which leaves the lines customary hitherto.
Literature: VATKE, D. menschl. Freiheit; V. OOSTERZEE, Christ. Dogmatics
(Eng. trans.), 355 f. (gives literature of special topics); HASTINGS, Dict.
of the Bible, art. Man; E. CAIRD, Evolution of Religion, i. 21 f., 70 f., 188
f., 205 f. (R.M.W.)
Anthropometry [Gr. anqrwpoV, man, + metron, measure]: Ger. Anthropometrie; Fr. anthropométrie; Ital. antropometria. The science that deals with the measurements, proportions, and physical characteristics of the human body.
The two dominant interests in anthropometrical investigations and results are the anthropological and sociological, and the developmental. The anthropologist uses anthropometric measurements to aid him in the differentiation of races and peoples and in the various problems of ethnology. This description of man as a member of a zoological species is best (although not invariably) termed Physical Anthropology or SOMATOLOGY (q.v.); also see ANTHROPOLOGY. Physical anthropology is therefore a broader term than anthropometry, including the study of man's origin and place in nature, the differentiation of races, variation of types, &c.
Anthropometry, on the other hand, includes the application of bodily measurements to individual development, to the effects of social influences, of environment, of special training and the like. The development of anthropometric research is a recent acquisition of science. Apart from the accurate description of the physical characteristics of man and their correlation with one another, anthropometry has been fostered by the study of the growth and development of the body (and its correlations with mental characteristics); by its practical applications in gymnastic and athletic training; by its connections with medical research, and the study of climatic, hereditary, and social influences. Cf. TESTS (psychophysical).
A division of anthropometry of special importance in ethnological research is CRANIOMETRY (q.v.). A further application of bodily measurement and description to the identification of criminals has recently been introduced with some success. Cf. A. Bertillon, in whose volume, Identification anthropométrique, new edition (1893), with atlas, a complete account of these methods is given. For a special study with a similar purpose see F. Galton, Finger Prints, Finger-print Directories. Cf. Criminal Anthropology under CRIMINAL.
Literature: CHARLES ROBERTS, A Manual of Anthropom. (1878), and the
complete literature, largely of special studies, reprinted and enlarged from
J. H. Baxter; Statistics, Med. and Anthropol., of the Provost-Marshal-General's
Bureau, 2 vols. (1875). Among more recent contributions are EMIL SCHMIDT, Anthropol.
Meth. (1888); MEGRET, Anthropom. Normale (1895); HRDLICKA, Anthropometry, Amer.
J. of Insan. (1897), liii. 521. R. THOMA, Untersuchungen über die Grösse
und das Gewicht der anatomischen Bestandtheile des menschlichen Körpers
(1882), is to be recommended, and includes a bibliography. See also DORSEY in
Science, N.S., vi. 110. (J.J.)
Anthropomorphism [Gr. anqrwpoV, man, + morqh, form]: Ger. Anthropomorphismus; Fr. anthropomorphisme; Ital. antropomorfismo. The assumption of human beings that their own characteristics are present in beings or facts widely different from themselves, more particularly in gods or in the forces of nature. It is a dominant trait in certain forms of the animistic conception of nature, and is discernible in more elaborate religious and philosophical systems. (R.H.S. - J.J.)
Anthropomorphism is a narrower conception than ANIMISM (q.v.); it finds illustrations
in each of the three meanings given under the latter term, since it indicates
the special form of animation -- often human analogy -- but is not limited to
the spiritual, or even to any sort of existence distinct from visible bodies.
The GHOST THEORY (q.v.) applies to the quasi-spiritual form of anthropomorphism;
but the ghost may, in particular cases, be a refined material shape; and the
use of the dream-ghost itself rests on an earlier cruder animism. Cf. the topics
EJECT and PERSONIFICATION; and see the next topic. (J.J.
Anthropomorphism (in religion). The name applied to that tendency which endows the gods, or God, with the nature of men or of man. The ancient Greek religion is usually cited as a typical instance.
The history of the subject is too intricate to be summarized briefly. But it may be said that anthropomorphism marks a stage in the history of religions superior to Fetichism, Nature Worship, and Shamanism. The extremest anthropomorphists in the history of Christianity were the Andians, who flourished in the 4th and 5th centuries. They were literalists in biblical interpretation, and held that all passages of Scripture attributing eyes, ears, and the like to God were to be taken in their strictest sense. At the present time interest in anthropomorphism centres in the consequences of the view, favoured by many philosophers, that this tendency is necessarily involved in the attribution of Personality to God. At this point the discussion touches upon the ultimate problems of pantheism and theism, with their metaphysical accompaniments of immanence and transcendence.
Literature: NÄGELSBECK, Die Homerische Theol.; CAMPBELL, Religion
in Greek Lit.; TIELE, Elements of the Sci. of Religion, ii. 100-21; E. CAIRD,
Evolution of Religion, i. 239 f., 367 f.; A. LANG, Myth, Ritual, and Religion
(2nd ed.); L. MARILLIER, L'origine des Dieux, Rev. Philos. (1899); A. REVILLE,
Prolégomènes de l'Hist. des Religions; ROMANES, Mind and Matter,
and Monism; BALDWIN, Social and Eth. Interpret., chap. viii. § 5, and chap.
x. § 4. (R.M.W. - L.M.)
Antichrist [Gr. anti, against, + XristoV, Christ]: Ger. Antichrist; Fr. antéchrist; Ital. Anticristo. The apocalyptic conception of a personal power operating specially to defeat the scheme of salvation dependent upon Christ. The subject belongs properly to the eschatological section of doctrinal theology.
The idea had its origin during the religious fermentation in the early years of the Roman Empire. From time to time theologians have identified the 'Man of Sin' with historical personages or movements. Instances of this are: -- Antiochus Epiphanes in Daniel; Nero in Revelation; Mohammed with the Christians of the dark ages; the Pope with some Protestants; Napoleon III and the modern sceptical movement, especially in its 'realistic' aspects, with some dogmatists.
Literature: RENAN, L'Antéchrist; DE LA SAUSSAYE, Studien, i.
65 f.; Commentaries on the Apocalypse, Thessalonians, Daniel; POURCHET, Antichrist;
REUSS, Hist. of Christ. Theol. in the Apostolic Age, i. 115, ii. 192, 448. (R.M.W.)
Anticipation [Lat. ante, before, + capere, to take]: Ger. (1) Erwartung, (2) vorzeitige Reactionen, negativen Werth (Reaction vom); Fr. (1) anticipation, (2) réaction anticipée; Ital. (1) anticipazione, (2) reazione anticipata. (1) A state of mental readiness for a coming event, on whatever ground it may rest. (2) A voluntary reaction to a stimulus before the latter occurs. See also PROLEPSIS.
(1) 'Expectation' has been used (by the translator of Külpe's Outlines of Psychology) in the general sense, but that term (q.v.) has a special signification. Cf. the usage of Reid, Inquiry, ii. § 24. Terms which emphasize more special phases of this state of mind are expectant attention (see ATTENTION) and PRE-PERCEPTION (q.v.).
(2) The number of anticipations in experiments in the laboratory is greater
in so-called 'muscular reaction.' In German (Wundt) these cases are called 'negative
values.' For theories of such anticipations and methods of treating results
containing them, see the references given under REACTION-TIME. (J.M.B.,
Anticipations of Experience. Kant's
expression (Anticipationen der Wahrnehmung) denotes the principles of knowledge
(Erkenntnis) by which I am able to recognize and determine a priori anything
that is known empirically (zur empirischen Erkenntnis gehört, Krit.
d. reinen Vernunft, 103), and especially, of these principles,
the second of the 'Grundsätzen des reinen Denkens,' which reads: Every
object of sensation has intensive magnitude, i.e. degree. (J.M.B.
Antinomianism [Gr. anti, against, + nomoV, law]: Ger. Antinomismus; Fr. antinomisme; Ital. antinomismo. A forcible separation between the 'gospel' and the 'law,' or between faith and works, whereby the latter are expelled from their due place in an ethico-religious unity.
Beginning with Paul, this controversy has come down through the ages to the present time. The contest was acute among the Reformers, of whom Arnsdorf was the most extreme. At present, and from the point of view of philosophy of religion, the interest of the question centres in the tendency (probably unconscious) of some among the evangelical churches to raise subscription, or orthodoxy, above life.
Literature: DORNER, Syst. of Christ. Doctrine, iv. 24 f., 77, 233 ff.;
FRANK, Theol. d. Kondordienformel. (R.M.W.)
Antinomy: Ger. Antinomie; Fr. antinomie; Ital. antinomia. A logical contradiction between two accepted principles or between conclusions drawn rightly from premises which have equal claim to objective validity.
The term, not in common use, though it is to be found in application to cases
of conflict of positive laws and in controversial theological literature, has
acquired a definite place in philosophy from the employment of it by Kant, to
indicate the position in which reason is placed when it endeavours, taking the
cosmos as a given and determinate subject, to lay out systematically the general
predicates by which it must be characterized. Cf. KANTIANISM, and KANTIAN TERMINOLOGY.
Antinomy (ethical). Any conflict of moral principles, each so comprehensive that no appeal to a third principle can decide between them.
The term is used by Kant with reference to a special conflict to which his ethical criticism leads. On the one hand the Summum Bonum involves a combination of happiness and virtue, and the promotion of the Summum Bonum is a priori a necessary object of the will and thus inseparably attached to moral law; on the other hand, happiness and virtue are conceptions which have nothing in common and which depend on different conditions: so that their connection cannot be brought about either analytically (one involving the other) or synthetically (one being the cause of the other). The antinomy is solved by Kant by reference to the postulate of God's existence. Cf. KANTIAN TERMINOLOGY. The phrase Social Antinomy is applied to the conflict between the individual's sense of duty and the practical formulations of society. See SOCIAL ETHICS.
Literature: KANT, Krit. d. prakt. Vernunft, I. ii. 1-2; BALDWIN, Social
and Eth. Interpret. (W.R.S.)
Antiochus of Aegae in Cilicia.
A Greek sophist of about 200 A.D.
Antiochus of Ascalon. A Greek
Platonist who lived in the first half of the 1st century B.C., teaching
in Athens, Alexandria, and Rome. The friend and teacher of Cicero; the
pupil and later the successor of Philo as head of the New Academy. He taught
philosophy in Athens and later in Alexandria. He sought to refute the scepticism
of Philo and Carneades, and to unite the principles of the New Academy
Antiochus of Laodicea. A
sceptic of the 1st or 2nd century; disciple of Zeuxis.
Antiochus of Saba or Seba.
He lived in the early part of the 7th century and wrote a treatise
on Christian morals.
Antipathy [Gr. anti, against, + paqoV, feeling]: Ger. Abneigung, Antipathie; Fr. antipathie; Ital. antipatia. A deep-seated and unreasoning mental aversion. See APPETENCE.
Antipathy falls under the general history of IMPULSE (q.v.). It has reference to an object, generally an individual person, toward which the aversion is felt. Its unreasoning character is expressed often by the words 'unaccountable,' 'unreasonable,' 'instinctive,' and even 'physical' (when the physical signs of aversion are marked). As contrasted with aversion, it is intensive.
It arises (1) through association of ideas (Spinoza), or (2) from inherited
predisposition. (J.M.B. - K.G.)
Antisthenes. Lived probably in the
later part of the 5th and early part of the 4th centuries B.C. Founder
of the Cynic school of Greek philosophers. A friend and pupil of Socrates,
teacher of Diogenes, but hostile to Plato.
Antitheistic Theories. More important
philosophical theories which oppose THEISM (q.v.), more particularly PANTHEISM
(q.v.) and MATERIALISM (q.v.). (J.M.B.)
Antithesis [Gr. anti,
against, + qesiV, thesis]: Ger. Antithese;
Fr. antithèse; Ital. antitesi. Logical or verbal opposition;
also, the second of two opposed propositions, the first of which is the
thesis. See THESIS, OPPOSITION, and HEGELIAN TERMINOLOGY.
Anxiety [Lat. anxius, anxious, from angor, distress]: Ger. Angst, Beängstigung; Fr. anxiété, délire anxieux, inquiétude; Ital. ansietà. (1) Relatively strong apprehension or fear of the type described under HOPE AND DESPAIR (q.v.).
(2) Pathological: solicitude, mental distress or agitation; either in dread or anticipation of some sorrow or trial, or as a general apprehensiveness of misfortune. Its specific expressions may be recognized in the worried aspect of the features and attitude, and in a feeling of constriction and distress in the praecordial region. It is a frequent symptom in various forms of nervous weakness and of mental disease. (J.J.)
It characterizes conditions of degeneracy, and is a symptom of Morel's 'emotional delirium' -- délire émotif. (L.M.)
Literature: cf. V. MAGNAN, Recherches sur les Centres nerveux (2nd series);
and Leçons cliniques sur les Maladies mentales (1893); MOSSO, Fear (Eng.